Author’s note 0: I have come up with better, more correct designs for monadic objects that implement break and continue in Scala for-comprehensions. I’m leaving this blog post up for posterity, but I recommend using the ‘breakable’ project if you are interested in break and continue in a Scala framework.

Author’s note: I’ve since received some excellent feedback from the Scala community, which I included in some end notes.

Author’s note the 2nd: I later realized I could apply an implicit conversion and mediator class to preserve the traditional ordering: the code has been updated with that approach.

Author’s note the 3rd: This concept has been submitted to the Scala project as JIRA SI-9120 (PR #4275)

Scala sequence comprehensions are an excellent functional programming idiom for looping in Scala. However, sequence comprehensions encompass much more than just looping – they represent a powerful syntax for manipulating all monadic structures[1].

The break and continue looping constructs are a popular framework for cleanly representing multiple loop halting and continuation conditions at differing stages in the execution flow. Although there is no native support for break or continue in Scala control constructs, it is possible to implement them in a clean and idiomatic way for sequence comprehensions.

In this post I will describe a lightweight and easy-to-use implementation of break and continue for use in Scala sequence comprehensions (aka for statements). The entire implementation is as follows:

object BreakableGenerators {
  import scala.language.implicitConversions

  type Generator[+A] = Iterator[A]
  type BreakableGenerator[+A] = BreakableIterator[A]

  // Generates a new breakable generator from any traversable object.
  def breakable[A](t1: TraversableOnce[A]): Generator[BreakableGenerator[A]] =
    List(new BreakableIterator(t1.toIterator)).iterator

  // Mediates boolean expression with 'break' and 'continue' invocations
  case class BreakableGuardCondition(cond: Boolean) {
    // Break the looping over one or more breakable generators, if 'cond' 
    // evaluates to true.
    def break(b: BreakableGenerator[_], bRest: BreakableGenerator[_]*): Boolean = {
      if (cond) {
        for (x <- bRest) { x.break }

    // Continue to next iteration of enclosing generator if 'cond' 
    // evaluates to true.
    def continue: Boolean = !cond

  // implicit conversion of boolean values to breakable guard condition mediary
  implicit def toBreakableGuardCondition(cond: Boolean) =

  // An iterator that can be halted via its 'break' method.  Not invoked directly
  class BreakableIterator[+A](itr: Iterator[A]) extends Iterator[A] {
    private var broken = false
    private[BreakableGenerators] def break { broken = true }

    def hasNext = !broken && itr.hasNext
    def next =

The approach is based on a simple subclass of IteratorBreakableIterator – that can be halted by ‘breaking’ it. The function breakable(<traversable-object>) returns an Iterator over a single BreakableIterator object. Iterators are monad-like structures in that they implement map and flatMap, and so its output can be used with <- at the start of a for construct in the usual way. Note that this means the result of the for statement will also be an Iterator.

Whenever the boolean expression for an if guard is followed by either break or continue, it is implicitly converted to a “breakable guard condition” that supports those methods. The function break accepts one or more instances of BreakableIterator. If it evaluates to true, the loops embodied by the given iterators are immediately halted via the associated if guard, and the iterators are halted via their break method. The continue function is mostly syntactic sugar for a standard if guard, simply with the condition inverted.

Here is a simple example of break and continue in use:

object Main {
  import BreakableGenerators._

  def main(args: Array[String]) {

    val r = for (
      // generate a breakable sequence from some sequential input
      loop <- breakable(1 to 1000);
      // iterate over the breakable sequence
      j <- loop;
      // print out at each iteration
      _ = { println(s"iteration j= $j") };
      // continue to next iteration when 'j' is even
      if { j % 2 == 0 } continue;
      // break out of the loop when 'j' exceeds 5
      if { j > 5 } break(loop)
    ) yield {
    println(s"result= ${r.toList}")

We can see from the resulting output that break and continue function in the usual way. The continue clause ignores all subsequent code when j is even. The break clause halts the loop when it sees its first value > 5, which is 7. Only odd values <= 5 are output from the yield statement:

$ scalac -d /home/eje/class monadic_break.scala
$ scala -classpath /home/eje/class Main
iteration j= 1
iteration j= 2
iteration j= 3
iteration j= 4
iteration j= 5
iteration j= 6
iteration j= 7
result= List(1, 3, 5)

Breakable iterators can be nested in the way one would expect. The following example shows an inner breakable loop nested inside an outer one:

object Main {
  import BreakableGenerators._

  def main(args: Array[String]) {
    val r = for (
      outer <- breakable(1 to 7);
      j <- outer;
      _ = { println(s"outer  j= $j") };
      if { j % 2 == 0 } continue;
      inner <- breakable(List("a", "b", "c", "d", "e"));
      k <- inner;
      _ = { println(s"    inner  j= $j  k= $k") };
      if { k == "d" } break(inner);
      if { j == 5  &&  k == "c" } break(inner, outer)
    ) yield {
      (j, k)
    println(s"result= ${r.toList}")

The output demonstrates that the inner loop breaks whenever k=="d", and so "e" is never present in the yield result. When j==5 and k=="c", both the inner and outer loops are broken, and so we see that there is no (5,"c") pair in the result, nor does the outer loop ever iterate over 6 or 7:

$ scalac -d /home/eje/class monadic_break.scala
$ scala -classpath /home/eje/class Main
outer  j= 1
    inner  j= 1  k= a
    inner  j= 1  k= b
    inner  j= 1  k= c
    inner  j= 1  k= d
outer  j= 2
outer  j= 3
    inner  j= 3  k= a
    inner  j= 3  k= b
    inner  j= 3  k= c
    inner  j= 3  k= d
outer  j= 4
outer  j= 5
    inner  j= 5  k= a
    inner  j= 5  k= b
    inner  j= 5  k= c
result= List((1,a), (1,b), (1,c), (3,a), (3,b), (3,c), (5,a), (5,b))

Using break and continue with BreakableIterator for sequence comprehensions is that easy. Enjoy!


The helpful community on freenode #scala made some excellent observations:

1: Iterators in Scala are not strictly monadic – it would be more accurate to say they’re “things with a flatMap and map method, also they can use filter or withFilter sometimes.” However, I personally still prefer to think of them as “monadic in spirit if not law.”

2: The break function, as described in this post, is not truly functional in the sense of referential transparency, as the invocation if break(loop) { condition } involves a side-effect on the variable loop. I would say that it does maintain “scoped functionality.” That is, the break in non-referential transparency is scoped by the variables in question. The for statement containing them is referentially transparent with respect to its inputs (provided no other code is breaking referential transparency, of course).


[1] Functional Programming in Scala, Paul Chiusano and Runar Bjarnason, (section 6.6)