In this post I want to discuss several advantages of defining lightweight non-negative numeric types in Scala, whose primary benefit is that they allow improved type signatures for Scala functions and methods. I’ll first describe the simple class definition, and then demonstrate how it can be used in function signatures and the benefits of doing so.

If the following ideas interest you at all, I highly recommend looking at the ‘refined’ project authored by Frank S. Thomas, which generalizes on the ideas below and supports additional static checking functionalities via macros.

A Non-Negative Integer Type

As a working example, I’ll discuss a non-negative integer type NonNegInt. My proposed definition is sufficiently lightweight to view as a single code block:

object nonneg {
  import scala.language.implicitConversions

  class NonNegInt private (val value: Int) extends AnyVal
  object NonNegInt {
    def apply(v: Int) = {
      require(v >= 0, "NonNegInt forbids negative integer values")
      new NonNegInt(v)
    implicit def toNonNegInt(v: Int) = NonNegInt(v)

  implicit def toInt(nn: NonNegInt) = nn.value

The notable properties and features of NonNegInt are:

  • NonNegInt is a value class around an Int, and so invokes no actual object construction or allocation
  • Its constructor is private, and so is safe from directly constructing around a negative integer
  • It supplies factory method NonNegInt(v) to construct a non negative integer value
  • It supplies implicit conversion from Int values to NonNegInt
  • Both factory method and implicit conversion check for negative values. There is no way to construct a NonNegInt that contains a negative integer value.
  • It also supplies implicit conversion from NonNegInt back to Int. Moving back and forth between Int and NonNegInt is effectively transparent.

The above properties work to make NonNegInt very lightweight with respect to size and runtime properties, and semantically safe in the sense that it is impossible to construct one with a negative value inside it.

Application of NonNegInt

I primarily envision NonNegInt as an easy and informative way to declare function parameters that are only well defined for non-negative values, without the need to write any explicit checking code, and yet allowing the programmer to call the function with normal Int values, due to the implicit conversions:

object example {
  import nonneg._

  def element[T](seq: Seq[T], j: NonNegInt) = seq(j)

  // call element function with a regular Int index
  val e = element(Vector(1,2,3), 1) // e is set to 2

This short example demonstrates some appealing properties of NonNegInt. Firstly, the constraint that index j >= 0 is enforced via the type definition, and so the programmer does not have to write the usual require(j >= 0, ...) check (or worry about forgetting it). Secondly, the implicit conversion from Int to NonNegInt means the programmer can just provide a regular integer value for parameter j, instead of having to explicitly say NonNegInt(1). Third, the implicit conversion from NonNegInt to Int means that j can easily be used anywhere a regular Int is used. Last, and very definitely not least, the fact that function element requires a non-negative integer is obvious right in the function signature. There is no need for a programmer to guess whether j can be negative, and no need for the author of element to document that j cannot be negative. Its type makes that completely clear.


In this post I’ve laid out some advantages of defining lightweight non-negative numeric types, in particular using NonNegInt as a working example. Clearly, if you want to apply this idea, you’d want to also define NonNegLong, NonNegDouble, NonNegFloat and for that matter PosInt, PosLong, etc. Happy computing!